BACKGROUND: In patients with heart failure, chronic kidney disease is common and associated with a higher risk of renal events than in patients without chronic kidney disease. We assessed the renal effects of angiotensin/neprilysin inhibition in patients who have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction enrolled in the PARAGON-HF trial (Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ARB Global Outcomes in HF With Preserved Ejection Fraction).
METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, event-driven trial, we assigned 4822 patients who had heart failure with preserved ejection fraction to receive sacubitril/valsartan (n=2419) or valsartan (n=2403). Herein, we present the results of the prespecified renal composite outcome (time to first occurrence of either: =50% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), end-stage renal disease, or death from renal causes), the individual components of this composite, and the influence of therapy on eGFR slope.
RESULTS: At randomization, eGFR was 63±19 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2. At study closure, the composite renal outcome occurred in 33 patients (1.4%) assigned to sacubitril/valsartan and 64 patients (2.7%) assigned to valsartan (hazard ratio, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.33-0.77]; P=0.001). The treatment effect on the composite renal end point did not differ according to the baseline eGFR (<60 versus =60 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2 (P-interaction=0.92). The decline in eGFR was less for sacubitril/valsartan than for valsartan (-2.0 [95% CI, -2.2 to -1.9] versus -2.7 [95% CI, -2.8 to -2.5] mL·min-1·1.73 m-2 per year).
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, sacubitril/valsartan reduced the risk of renal events, and slowed decline in eGFR, in comparison with valsartan. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01920711.
|Family Medicine (FM)/General Practice (GP)|
|General Internal Medicine-Primary Care(US)|
HFpEF is not studied as well as HFrEF, so it's refreshing to see a study focused on the condition. The study showed that an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor improved the rate of decline of GFR. Although this study focuses on an important topic and suggests benefit, it remains to be seen whether this outcome connects to clinically relevant outcomes like need for medication dosing changes or dialysis.
This study has shed the light to another potential drug regimen than can slow the deterioration of kidney function with CKD patients with HFpEF. This is post hoc analysis of PARAGON HF study. However, one caveat is that they do not measure urine microalbuminuria as part of its outcomes.
This appears to show a small benefit in a small study. Nothing practice-changing.
This is useful because appropriate therapy for HFpEF has not been clear. However though the relative effect is significant, the absolute risk reduction is small (given the low rate of outcomes in the valsartan group).
Previous trials of nephrilysin inhibition have used slope of GFR. These results are aligned with those, in showing renal benefit, but allow us a more concrete grasp of the potential importance to patients. This is a secondary trial outcome in an RCT of HFpEF with eGFR>25: 50% decline in GFR, death from kidney causes or ESRD: 1.4% in sacubitril/valsartan and 2.7% in valsartan, NNT 76. Follow up time for these real outcomes is not given; instead modelled outcomes at full 4 year follow up are provided (only ~270 patients actually followed for 4 years): 2.1% vs 4.1% NNT 50. I don't see stratified analyses by baseline GFR, UACR, sex and age, though the discussion says that there was no interaction with GFR >60 v <60. This is all useful new information.